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The Soviet Union promoted development of the language, but set it back considerably with two successive script changes [21] — from the Persian to Latin and then to the Cyrillic script — while Iranian Azerbaijanis continued to use the Persian as they always had.

Despite the wide use of Azerbaijani in the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic , it did not become the official language of Azerbaijan until Two other newly independent Turkic-speaking republics, Uzbekistan , and Turkmenistan , as well as Romanian-speaking Moldova on 31 August , [23] [24] [25] officially adopted Latin alphabets for their languages.

In , Uzbekistan ordered the Uzbek alphabet changed from a Russian -based Cyrillic script to a modified Latin alphabet, and in , Uzbek became the sole language of state administration.

Unlike its Turkic neighbours, Kazakhstan did not move towards Latinisation after obtaining statehood in As of Latin is the official script of Kazakhstan, replacing Cyrillic.

This was motivated by pragmatic reasons: the government was wary to alienate the country's large Russian-speaking minority, and due to the economic crisis in the early s, a transition was considered fiscally unfeasable at the time.

In , President Nursultan Nazarbayev requested the Ministry of Education and Science to examine the experiences of Turkey, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, which had all switched to Latin script in the 20th century.

Aside from integrating Kazakhstan into the global economy, officials have argued it would help the development of a Kazakh national identity separate from Russia.

More than nationalities live in our state. Thus we need stability and peace. We should be in no hurry in the issue of alphabet transformation".

In , the Kazakh government announced that the Latin script would replace Cyrillic as the writing system for the Kazakh language by The romanisation policy is intended to modernise Kazakhstan and increase international cooperation.

The Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic employed a Latin alphabet from to , when it was decreed that all languages in the Soviet Union be written in Cyrillic.

After gaining independence in , Turkmenistan was amongst several ex-Soviet states seeking to reintroduce the Latin script.

Although totalitarian dictator Saparmurat Niyazov , ruling Turkmenistan from to his death in , announced a decree on 12 April that formalised a new Turkmen Latin alphabet, the de facto implementation has been slow and incomplete.

The original alphabet had 30 letters, but missed several sounds and did not fit the Turkmen language, so several amendments were made in The first book in Latin script was printed in , but Turkmen language and literature manuals were not available until ; Cyrillic manuals had been banned before Latin ones were available.

Although by the younger generations were well-versed in the Turkmen Latin alphabet through the education system, adults, including teachers, were not given any official training programme and were expected to learn it by themselves without state support.

In October , the organization National Representational Organization for Inuit in Canada ITK announced that they will introduce a unified writing system for the Inuit languages in the country.

The writing system is based on the Latin alphabet and is modeled after the one used in the Greenlandic language.

In , Austrian slavistics professor Otto Kronsteiner recommended that Bulgaria adopt the Latin script in order to facilitate the country's accession to the European Union.

This caused such a scandal that the Veliko Tarnovo University revoked the honorary degree it had previously awarded him for supporting the Bulgarian viewpoint on the Macedonian language.

However, in digital communication using computers and writing emails and SMS , the Latin script has been proposed to replace the Cyrillic.

A Bulgarian Latin alphabet, the so-called shlyokavitsa , is already often employed for convenience for emails and SMS messages. Despite initial resistance from Islamist Kosovo Albanians who favoured the Arabic script against the Congress of Manastir 's resolution to adopt the Latin script to write the Albanian language in, Kosovo Albanians came to accept the Albanian Latin alphabet over the course of the early 20th century.

Adopting the Latin script for the Kyrgyz language has been the subject of discussions in Kyrgyzstan since attaining independence in the s.

However, unlike in the other Turkic-dominated former Soviet republics in Central Asia, the issue did not become prominent until its great neighbour Kazakhstan in September and April confirmed its previous announcements to Latinise the closely related Kazakh language.

Before then, the largely Russian-speaking elite of the country saw no reason to, nor did it seek to endanger its good-standing political and economic relations with the Russian Federation.

Amongst others, deputy Kanybek Imanaliyev advocated a shift to Latin for 'the development of contemporary technology, communication, education and science.

Because Russia is still a very important financial supporter of Kyrgyzstan, other experts agreed it would be unwise for Bishkek to make a move that would culturally alienate Moscow.

President Almazbek Atambayev stated in October that the country would not Latinise any time soon. To the east of Kyrgyz language there it is a western China 's language that historically was linked to the Kyrgyzstan's language: the Uighur language.

The Macedonian language in its Cyrillic alphabet has been the official language of the Republic of Macedonia throughout the country and in its foreign relations since The six minority languages — Albanian, Turkish, Romani, Serbian, Bosnian and Aromanian — are with the exception of Serbian always officially written in Latin script in the municipalities where their speakers constitute a significant minority or even majority.

The Mongolian language has been written in the Cyrillic script since There have been talks to switch the language's alphabet to either the Latin script or the traditional Mongolian script used in China 's Inner Mongolia region.

There is ongoing discussion in Montenegro about how to label the "Montenegrin" language , which is mutually intelligible with the other standardised versions of Serbo-Croatian : Serbian , Croatian and Bosnian.

These debates focus on the perceived linguistic differences between Montenegrin and related variants, but also on national and political identification.

Montenegro practices digraphia : there are two official Montenegrin alphabets , one Latin and one Cyrillic. In electoral campaigns after , especially the independence referendum , Latin has come to symbolise closeness to Western countries, including Montenegro's historical ties to Venice , and independence from Serbia; on the other hand, Cyrillic is taken to signify unity with Serbia and closeness to the East.

In general, proponents of calling the language "Montenegrin" — including the government — tend to favour the Latin script, whereas supporters of "Serbian" prefer Cyrillic.

The SNP was unsuccessful in forcing the minister to resign. Under the Constitution of Serbia of , Cyrillic script is the only one in official use.

He said there wasn't any kind of conspiracy going on against the Cyrillic alphabet, but rather that the spirit of the times, historical circumstances and the decades-long process of globalisation had gradually made Latin the world's dominant script.

In , the Russian Republic of Tatarstan proposed to convert the Turkic Tatar language to Latin script in order to bring it into the modern world of the Internet.

There was opposition from both inside and outside Tatarstan, with Tatars arguing it would threaten their national identity and to sever their ties to the past.

The Russian State Duma rejected the proposal. In , Putin therefore enacted a law that made the use of Cyrillic mandatory for all languages in all autonomous republics of Russia.

In March , Foreign Minister of Ukraine Pavlo Klimkin called for a discussion on the introduction of the Latin alphabet in parallel usage with the traditional Cyrillic one in Ukraine.

He did so in response to the suggestion of Polish historian Ziemowit Szczerek. Ukraine's parliamentary committee on science and education responded, with first deputy chair Oleksandr Spivakovsky saying that today in Ukraine there are other, more important issues to work on than a transition to the Latin script.

Similarly, philology professor Oleksandr Ponomariv was skeptical whether a full transition to Latin would benefit Ukraine, but did not rule out the parallel use of two alphabets.

He pointed to the fact that the Serbian language is also expressed in both a Cyrillic and a Latin alphabet. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the geographic history of the Latin script. For the typographic and orthographic history of the Latin script, see history of the Latin script.

For the history of the Latin language, see history of Latin. Countries where the Latin script is the sole main script. Countries where Latin co-exists with other scripts.

The Lithuanian press ban in action: two issues of the same popular prayer book. The Latin left one was illegal, the right Cyrillic one was legal and paid for by the government.

Main article: Albanian alphabet. See also: Gaj's Latin alphabet. CE Greek 8 c. BCE Etruscan 8 c. BCE Latin 7 c. BCE Cherokee syllabary; letter forms only c.

CE Ogham origin uncertain 4 c. CE Coptic 3 c. CE Gothic 3 c. CE derived from Brahmi numerals. Main article: History of the Latin script. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Spread of the Latin script. Howard , Transnationalism in Ancient and Medieval Societies.

The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 16 December Dizionario di Abbreviature Latine ed Italiane. Milano: Editore Ulrico Hoepli.

Oxford Etymologist. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 3 October The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language.

Cambridge University Press. Retrieved on Latin script. History Spread Romanization Roman numerals. Letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

Diacritics Palaeography. Types of writing systems. History of writing Grapheme. Ideograms and pictograms. Jurchen Khitan large script Sui Tangut.

Demotic Hieratic Hieroglyphs. Arabic Persian Urdu Pakistan. Algerian Braille obsolete. American Braille obsolete. Accessible publishing Braille literacy RoboBraille.

Internet slang variants. Padonkaffsky jargon Russian Translit Volapuk. Hidden categories: Wikipedia semi-protected pages Articles with short description Short description is different from Wikidata Articles to be merged from October All articles to be merged Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle Articles needing additional references from July All articles needing additional references All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from November Articles with unsourced statements from July Commons link from Wikidata.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read View source View history. Even in Chile, a developing-world success story, some neighborhoods are turning to community cook-ups in a throwback to the dictatorship era of the s.

Trending: Biden bizarrely kneels during Hispanic campaign event in Arizona. That rise — to 16 million from 4. But Americans can be thankful that hunger is rare in the United States.

The United States fared better economically than most of the world during the pandemic. In the second quarter of , the U.

It also fell by After its losses in the second quarter, the U. Many experts had predicted that the unemployment rate would peak at over 30 percent.

But it never rose above The head of the St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank said the U. That legislation would provide a stimulus for the economy although it would also cost the government a lot to extend coronavirus relief, and doing so would greatly increase the growing national debt.

Republicans and Democrats have proposed competing coronavirus relief bills and have not yet reached a compromise, and expanded unemployment benefits have expired in some states as a result.

They could be released even if they have recently committed murder or sex crimes, and have served almost none of their sentence. Once released, inmates would not return to prison even when the coronavirus epidemic ends.

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A more formal style of writing was based on Roman square capitalsbut cursive was used for quicker, informal writing. BCE Dreier porno free 8 c. During Meine geile nachbarin 7 French protectorate — Nackte brünetten, colonial rulers made an effort to educate all Vietnamese, and a simpler writing system was found more expedient for teaching and communication with the general population. For modern alphabets derived from it used in other languages Latina spreads applications, see Latin script and Latin-script alphabet. History of the alphabet. With the return of ethnic nationalism in the s, the two Spritzende schwänze became heavily associated with particular variants of the Serbo-Croatian language and thus with national identities. Albanian used a variety of writing systems since its first attestation in the Sex mit asiatinnen century, especially Latin in the northGreek in the southOttoman and Arabic favoured by many Muslims.

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Despite the wide use of Azerbaijani in the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic , it did not become the official language of Azerbaijan until Two other newly independent Turkic-speaking republics, Uzbekistan , and Turkmenistan , as well as Romanian-speaking Moldova on 31 August , [23] [24] [25] officially adopted Latin alphabets for their languages.

In , Uzbekistan ordered the Uzbek alphabet changed from a Russian -based Cyrillic script to a modified Latin alphabet, and in , Uzbek became the sole language of state administration.

Unlike its Turkic neighbours, Kazakhstan did not move towards Latinisation after obtaining statehood in As of Latin is the official script of Kazakhstan, replacing Cyrillic.

This was motivated by pragmatic reasons: the government was wary to alienate the country's large Russian-speaking minority, and due to the economic crisis in the early s, a transition was considered fiscally unfeasable at the time.

In , President Nursultan Nazarbayev requested the Ministry of Education and Science to examine the experiences of Turkey, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, which had all switched to Latin script in the 20th century.

Aside from integrating Kazakhstan into the global economy, officials have argued it would help the development of a Kazakh national identity separate from Russia.

More than nationalities live in our state. Thus we need stability and peace. We should be in no hurry in the issue of alphabet transformation".

In , the Kazakh government announced that the Latin script would replace Cyrillic as the writing system for the Kazakh language by The romanisation policy is intended to modernise Kazakhstan and increase international cooperation.

The Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic employed a Latin alphabet from to , when it was decreed that all languages in the Soviet Union be written in Cyrillic.

After gaining independence in , Turkmenistan was amongst several ex-Soviet states seeking to reintroduce the Latin script. Although totalitarian dictator Saparmurat Niyazov , ruling Turkmenistan from to his death in , announced a decree on 12 April that formalised a new Turkmen Latin alphabet, the de facto implementation has been slow and incomplete.

The original alphabet had 30 letters, but missed several sounds and did not fit the Turkmen language, so several amendments were made in The first book in Latin script was printed in , but Turkmen language and literature manuals were not available until ; Cyrillic manuals had been banned before Latin ones were available.

Although by the younger generations were well-versed in the Turkmen Latin alphabet through the education system, adults, including teachers, were not given any official training programme and were expected to learn it by themselves without state support.

In October , the organization National Representational Organization for Inuit in Canada ITK announced that they will introduce a unified writing system for the Inuit languages in the country.

The writing system is based on the Latin alphabet and is modeled after the one used in the Greenlandic language.

In , Austrian slavistics professor Otto Kronsteiner recommended that Bulgaria adopt the Latin script in order to facilitate the country's accession to the European Union.

This caused such a scandal that the Veliko Tarnovo University revoked the honorary degree it had previously awarded him for supporting the Bulgarian viewpoint on the Macedonian language.

However, in digital communication using computers and writing emails and SMS , the Latin script has been proposed to replace the Cyrillic.

A Bulgarian Latin alphabet, the so-called shlyokavitsa , is already often employed for convenience for emails and SMS messages. Despite initial resistance from Islamist Kosovo Albanians who favoured the Arabic script against the Congress of Manastir 's resolution to adopt the Latin script to write the Albanian language in, Kosovo Albanians came to accept the Albanian Latin alphabet over the course of the early 20th century.

Adopting the Latin script for the Kyrgyz language has been the subject of discussions in Kyrgyzstan since attaining independence in the s.

However, unlike in the other Turkic-dominated former Soviet republics in Central Asia, the issue did not become prominent until its great neighbour Kazakhstan in September and April confirmed its previous announcements to Latinise the closely related Kazakh language.

Before then, the largely Russian-speaking elite of the country saw no reason to, nor did it seek to endanger its good-standing political and economic relations with the Russian Federation.

Amongst others, deputy Kanybek Imanaliyev advocated a shift to Latin for 'the development of contemporary technology, communication, education and science.

Because Russia is still a very important financial supporter of Kyrgyzstan, other experts agreed it would be unwise for Bishkek to make a move that would culturally alienate Moscow.

President Almazbek Atambayev stated in October that the country would not Latinise any time soon. To the east of Kyrgyz language there it is a western China 's language that historically was linked to the Kyrgyzstan's language: the Uighur language.

The Macedonian language in its Cyrillic alphabet has been the official language of the Republic of Macedonia throughout the country and in its foreign relations since The six minority languages — Albanian, Turkish, Romani, Serbian, Bosnian and Aromanian — are with the exception of Serbian always officially written in Latin script in the municipalities where their speakers constitute a significant minority or even majority.

The Mongolian language has been written in the Cyrillic script since There have been talks to switch the language's alphabet to either the Latin script or the traditional Mongolian script used in China 's Inner Mongolia region.

There is ongoing discussion in Montenegro about how to label the "Montenegrin" language , which is mutually intelligible with the other standardised versions of Serbo-Croatian : Serbian , Croatian and Bosnian.

These debates focus on the perceived linguistic differences between Montenegrin and related variants, but also on national and political identification.

Montenegro practices digraphia : there are two official Montenegrin alphabets , one Latin and one Cyrillic. In electoral campaigns after , especially the independence referendum , Latin has come to symbolise closeness to Western countries, including Montenegro's historical ties to Venice , and independence from Serbia; on the other hand, Cyrillic is taken to signify unity with Serbia and closeness to the East.

In general, proponents of calling the language "Montenegrin" — including the government — tend to favour the Latin script, whereas supporters of "Serbian" prefer Cyrillic.

The SNP was unsuccessful in forcing the minister to resign. Under the Constitution of Serbia of , Cyrillic script is the only one in official use.

He said there wasn't any kind of conspiracy going on against the Cyrillic alphabet, but rather that the spirit of the times, historical circumstances and the decades-long process of globalisation had gradually made Latin the world's dominant script.

In , the Russian Republic of Tatarstan proposed to convert the Turkic Tatar language to Latin script in order to bring it into the modern world of the Internet.

There was opposition from both inside and outside Tatarstan, with Tatars arguing it would threaten their national identity and to sever their ties to the past.

The Russian State Duma rejected the proposal. In , Putin therefore enacted a law that made the use of Cyrillic mandatory for all languages in all autonomous republics of Russia.

In March , Foreign Minister of Ukraine Pavlo Klimkin called for a discussion on the introduction of the Latin alphabet in parallel usage with the traditional Cyrillic one in Ukraine.

He did so in response to the suggestion of Polish historian Ziemowit Szczerek. Ukraine's parliamentary committee on science and education responded, with first deputy chair Oleksandr Spivakovsky saying that today in Ukraine there are other, more important issues to work on than a transition to the Latin script.

Similarly, philology professor Oleksandr Ponomariv was skeptical whether a full transition to Latin would benefit Ukraine, but did not rule out the parallel use of two alphabets.

He pointed to the fact that the Serbian language is also expressed in both a Cyrillic and a Latin alphabet.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the geographic history of the Latin script. For the typographic and orthographic history of the Latin script, see history of the Latin script.

For the history of the Latin language, see history of Latin. Countries where the Latin script is the sole main script. Countries where Latin co-exists with other scripts.

The Lithuanian press ban in action: two issues of the same popular prayer book. The Latin left one was illegal, the right Cyrillic one was legal and paid for by the government.

Main article: Albanian alphabet. See also: Gaj's Latin alphabet. Main article: Latinisation in the Soviet Union. Hundreds of symbols and abbreviations exist, varying from century to century.

It is generally believed that the Latin alphabet used by the Romans was derived from the Old Italic alphabet used by the Etruscans. Latin included 21 different characters.

An attempt by the emperor Claudius to introduce three additional letters did not last. Thus it was during the classical Latin period that the Latin alphabet contained 23 letters:.

This scheme has continued to be used by most modern European languages that have adopted the Latin alphabet. For the Latin sounds represented by the various letters see Latin spelling and pronunciation ; for the names of the letters in English see English alphabet.

Diacritics were not regularly used, but they did occur sometimes, the most common being the apex used to mark long vowels , which had previously sometimes been written doubled.

The primary mark of punctuation was the interpunct , which was used as a word divider , though it fell out of use after AD.

Old Roman cursive script, also called majuscule cursive and capitalis cursive, was the everyday form of handwriting used for writing letters, by merchants writing business accounts, by schoolchildren learning the Latin alphabet, and even emperors issuing commands.

A more formal style of writing was based on Roman square capitals , but cursive was used for quicker, informal writing.

It was most commonly used from about the 1st century BC to the 3rd century, but it probably existed earlier than that.

It led to Uncial , a majuscule script commonly used from the 3rd to 8th centuries AD by Latin and Greek scribes. This script evolved into the medieval scripts known as Merovingian and Carolingian minuscule.

Prior to that, the former had been merely allographs of the latter. With the fragmentation of political power, the style of writing changed and varied greatly throughout the Middle Ages, even after the invention of the printing press.

The languages that use the Latin script generally use capital letters to begin paragraphs and sentences and proper nouns. The rules for capitalization have changed over time, and different languages have varied in their rules for capitalization.

Old English , for example, was rarely written with even proper nouns capitalized, whereas Modern English writers and printers of the 17th and 18th century frequently capitalized most and sometimes all nouns, [6] which is still systematically done in Modern German , e.

The Latin alphabet spread, along with the Latin language , from the Italian Peninsula to the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea with the expansion of the Roman Empire.

The eastern half of the Empire , including Greece , Anatolia , the Levant , and Egypt , continued to use Greek as a lingua franca , but Latin was widely spoken in the western half , and as the western Romance languages evolved out of Latin, they continued to use and adapt the Latin alphabet.

With the spread of Western Christianity during the Middle Ages , the script was gradually adopted by the peoples of northern Europe who spoke Celtic languages displacing the Ogham alphabet or Germanic languages displacing earlier Runic alphabets , Baltic languages , as well as by the speakers of several Uralic languages , most notably Hungarian , Finnish and Estonian.

The Latin alphabet came into use for writing the West Slavic languages and several South Slavic languages , as the people who spoke them adopted Roman Catholicism.

Later, it was adopted by non-Catholic countries. Romanian , most of whose speakers are Orthodox , was the first major language to switch from Cyrillic to Latin script, doing so in the 19th century, although Moldova only did so after the Soviet collapse.

It has also been increasingly adopted by Turkic-speaking countries, beginning with Turkey in the s. The government of Kazakhstan announced in that the Latin alphabet would replace Cyrillic as the writing system for the Kazakh language by The spread of the Latin alphabet among previously illiterate peoples has inspired the creation of new writing systems, such as the Avoiuli alphabet in Vanuatu , which replaces the letters of the Latin alphabet with alternative symbols.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Alphabet used to write the Latin language. It has been suggested that Latin script be merged into this article.

Discuss Proposed since October This article is about the alphabet used to write the Latin language. For modern alphabets derived from it used in other languages and applications, see Latin script and Latin-script alphabet.

Numerous Latin alphabets ; also more divergent derivations such as Osage. Unicode range. History of the alphabet. BCE Hieratic 32 c. BCE Demotic 7 c.

BCE Meroitic 3 c. BCE Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE Ugaritic 15 c. BCE Phoenician 12 c. As FactCheck. Hans Bader practices law in Washington, D.

After studying economics and history at the University of Virginia and law at Harvard, he practiced civil-rights, international-trade, and constitutional law.

He also once worked in the Education Department. Hans writes for CNSNews. For your convenience, you may leave commments below using Disqus.

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